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The mayors of Rio de Janeiro and 2010 Winter Olymp (1st Jun 18 at 9:00am UTC)Quote Reply

Although the sports medicine community has not come to a consensus Bruno Alves World Cup Jersey , there are two methods of objective testing that may satisfy the reasonableness test: neuropsychological testing and postural stability testing.

Neuropsychological testing measures the athlete's cognitive flexibility, attention span, orientation, concentration Bernardo Silva World Cup Jersey , visual-spatial capacity, distractibility, immediate memory recall, and problem-solving abilities.

These tests directly measure the cognitive qualities that are affected by head injury and allow athletic trainers to objectively evaluate the athlete's condition.

The administration of these tests generally occurs in a clinical setting Anthony Lopes World Cup Jersey , although recent research indicates that athletic trainers may also administer neuropsychological tests on the sidelines and achieve valid results. The National Football League and National Hockey League currently use neuropsychological testing to assess professional athletes' cognitive abilities, establishing that it is reasonable to employ these tests as a standard for assessing, treating, and making return-to-play decisions.

Similarly Andre Gomes World Cup Jersey , researchers have established that postural stability tests are reasonable to use in determining when symptoms of concussion cease. These objective tests use sophisticated force plate systems to challenge sensory systems involved in balance by altering visual and support surface conditions.

Although it may not be reasonable to expect the average athletic trainer to have access to this type of equipment, research indicates that there is a significant correlation between the results of simple tests that the athletic trainer can conduct on the sideline and the results of sophisticated postural stability tests.

One of the reasons that athletic trainers rely so heavily on subjective measures and personal intuition when evaluating an athlete with a head injury is that they have nothing for comparison. Athletic trainers and team physicians routinely conduct pre-participation examinations to determine if an athlete has a condition that would preclude participation in sports.

Although reported legal decisions provide little guidance regarding the appropriate nature and scope of a standard pre-participation examination, many lawsuits allege that the sports medicine professional did not discover a medical condition that later resulted in injury or death.

Informed Consent

Generally the law has found that physicians who conduct a thorough pre-participation examination in conformity with accepted standards of practice are not liable for the athlete's injuries that occurred post examination.

Sports medicine professionals should always consider the intensity and physical demands of the athlete's sport, all objective clinical evidence Adrien Silva World Cup Jersey , and the probability and severity of harm from athletic participation given the athlete's condition. Failure to provide an athlete with full disclosure of material information about playing a sport with a medical condition or the potential consequences creates liability for negligence. This duty to disclose relevant information relates to the issue of informed consent.

Informed consent is usually a defense for assault and battery, but courts have translated this concept into negligence terminology. Informed consent comes from the public policy that a competent adult has the legal right to determine what to do with their body. As such, adults may provide consent, but minors require consent by a parent or guardian.

The consent must represent an informed decision regarding the risks of treatment and participation. For an athlete's decision to be informed Portugal World Cup Jerseys , the sports medicine professional must clearly warn of all material, short-term, and long-term medical risks of continued athletic participation under the circumstances. Athletic trainers and team physicians can share liability if more than one person, other than the athlete William Carvalho World Cup Jersey , contributed to any injury.

If negligence can be associated to a sports accident or injury there are potential damages, which the injured party can collect. The athlete must prove by a preponderance of the evidence that a breach of some type was in fact the legal cause of the injury.

In a negligence case, the injured party generally seeks financial damages for the following areas: past, present Vieirinha World Cup Jersey , and future pain and suffering; past, present, and future medical expenses; and past, present Rui Patricio World Cup Jersey , and future diminution of earning cap.

RIO DE JANEIRO, April 25 (Xinhua) -- A timeline of events leading up to the Rio 2016 Olympic Games.

October 2009 - Rio de Janeiro is chosen ahead of Chicago, Tokyo and Madrid to host the 2016 Olympic Games.

October 2009 - Rugby sevens is added to the Rio 2016 Olympic schedule; golf is reintroduced after a 112-year absence.

March 2010 - The mayors of Rio de Janeiro and 2010 Winter Olympics host Vancouver sign a cooperation deal to ""exchange information and experiences"".

January 2011 - Rio unveils its official Olympic logo.

August 2012 - Brazilian samba dancers take center stage in the final minutes of the London 2012 Olympic closing ceremony, marking the start of the road to Rio.

April 2013 - The Maracana stadium - home to the Rio 2016 opening and closing ceremonies - is reopened after nearly three years of renovations.

April 2014 - IOC vice president John Coates says Rio's Olympic preparations are the ""worst"" he's seen.

August 2014 - Rio stages its first official test event: a sailing regatta in Guanabara Bay.

November 2014 - Organizers announce Vinicius and Tom as the official Rio 2016 mascots. Vinicius is a hybrid of native Brazilian animals and Tom is a mix of local plants.

March 30, 2016 - Brazil's sports minister George Hilton resigns just four months before the Games after his par. Wholesale Jerseys Cheap Jerseys From China Cheap Sports Jerseys China Cheap College Jerseys China Cheap T-shirts Cheap NHL Jerseys Shop Cheap NFL Shirts Cheap NBA T-shirts Cheap Baseball Jerseys Cheap Hats
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